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تأثیر سطوح مختلف منوآمونیوم فسفات، زئولیت، ورمیکمپوست و آهک در تثبیت عناصر سنگین در خاك های آلوده

چکیده
   اصلاح خاكهای آلوده به فلزات سنگین جهت جلوگیری از ورود آنها به چرخه ی غذایی انسان امری ضروری است. به منظور بررسی تأثیر اصلاح کننده های مختلف بر کاهش مقدار قابل جذب روی، سرب و کادمیوم، یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 16 تیمار و در 3 تکرار اجرا گردید. تیمارها شامل سه اصلاح کننده ی منوآمونیوم فسفات، زئولیت و ورمیکمپوست با مقادیر 10 ،5 ،0 و 15 تن در هکتار و آهک با مقادیر 2 ،1 ،0 و 4 درصد بودند که به یک خاك آلوده به فلزات سنگین اضافه شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده ها نشان داد که اصلاح کننده های مختلف تأثیر معنی داری بر غلظت روی، سرب و کادمیوم قابل جذب خاك دارند و باعث کاهش مقدار آنها شدند. بهترین اصلاح کننده جهت کاهش مقدار سرب و روی قابل جذب به ترتیب مصرف 10 و 15 تن در هکتار منوآمونیوم فسفات و بهترین غیرمتحرك کننده روی، آهک بود.
کلمات کلیدی: اصلاح خاك، زئولیت، فلزات سنگین، منوآمونیوم فسفات، ورمیکمپوست

مقدمه
   خاك به عنوان یکی از اجزاء مهم محیط زیست، دریافت کننده ی پسماندها و ضایعات کشاورزی، صنعتی و شهری است و ورود این مواد به خاك میتواند به صورتهای گوناگون حیات موجودات زنده را تحت تأثیر قرار دهد. لذا اطلاع از ماهیت آلاینده ها و رفتار شیمیایی آنها در خاك جهت پاكسازی یا بیاثر کردن آنها امری الزامی است ( 2). عناصرسنگین از جمله مهمترین آلاینده های محیط زیست به شمار می آیند که در چند دهه اخیر به شدت مورد توجه قرار گرفته اند. سالانه هزاران تن از این عناصر که ناشی از فعالیتهای شهری، صنعتی و کشاورزی است وارد خاك می شوند. به عنوان مثال سالانه بیش از 38 هزارتن کادمیوم و 1 میلیون تن سرب از منابع مختلف وارد خاك میشوند ( 3). فلزات سنگین به دلیل عدم تجزیه و تخریب از آلاینده های پایدار و بادوام محیط زیست به شمار می آیند. بنابراین در خاكها و رسوبات تجمع نموده و مقادیر زیاد آنها در محیط های دریایی و خشکی میتواند علاوه بر تأثیر بر موجودات باعث مسمومیت انسان از طریق مصرف غذاهای حاصل از دریا و خشکی شود ( 1). لذا هدف از این پژوهش بررسی اثر افزودنیهای مختلف جهت غیرمتحرك کردن عناصر سرب، روی و کادمیوم و در نتیجه کاهش مقدار قابل جذب آنهادر خاك میباشد.
نتایج و بحث
   تأثیر اصلاح کننده های مختلف و سطوح آنها بر غلظت قابل جذب سرب خاك نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده ها نشان داد که اصلاح کننده های مختلف و سطوح آنها تأثیر معنی داری بر غلظت سرب قابل جذب دارند. هر چهار اصلاح کننده و سطوح آنها نسبت به شاهد باعث کاهش قابلیت جذب سرب شدند.
  بهترین اصلاح کننده برای کاهش غلظت قابل جذب سرب، منوآمونیوم فسفات به مقدار 10 تن در هکتار بود. اگرچه بین سطوح 10 و 15 تن در هکتار منوآمونیوم فسفات تفاوت معنی داری وجود نداشت. بعد از منوآمونیوم فسفات، ورمیکمپوست بیشترین تأثیر و آهک کمترین تأثیر را در کاهش غلظت قابل جذب سرب داشت. کاهش سرب قابل جذب توسط منوآمونیوم فسفات احتمالاً به دلیل تشکیل فسفات سرب است که از حلالیت ناچیزی در خاك برخوردار میباشد. اصلاح کننده های فسفاته ممکن است حلالیت عناصر فلزی را به علت تشکیل رسوب فلز- فسفات و تشکیل فرم هایی با حلالیت کمتر و پایداری بیشتر، کاهش دهند. مک گائن و همکاران( 2001 ) نشان دادند که افزودن دیآمونیوم فسفات کانی (Pb5(PO4) 3OH) به خاك باعث کاهش میزان سرب قابل جذب در خاك میشود. هیدروکسی پرومورفیت سرب کنترل کننده ی حلالیت سرب در خاكهایی است که با فسفات تیمار شدهاند ( 6). ورمی کمپوست بعد از منوآمونیوم فسفات بیشترین تأثیر را در کاهش غلظت سرب نشان داد که میتواند به علت افزایش ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی خاك و جذب سطحی بیشتر سرب از یک طرف و تشکیل کمپلکس های پایدار مواد آلی – سرب از طرف دیگر باشد. ترکیبات
آلی به عنوان یکی از اجزاء خاك به علت داشتن گروه های عاملی فراوان میتوانند با فلزات تشکیل کمپلکس دهنده که ممکن است این کلاتها نامحلول باشند(3).
تأثیر اصلاح کنندههای مختلف و سطوح آنها بر غلظت قابل جذب کادمیوم خاك
   نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده ها نشان داد که اصلاح کننده های مختلف و سطوح آنها تأثیر معنی داری بر غلظت قابل جذب کادمیوم در خاك دارند. اصلاح کنندههای مختلف و سطوح آنها باعث کاهش غلظت قابل جذب کادمیوم در خاك شدند ولی تأثیر آنها متفاوت بود. منوآمونیوم فسفات بیشترین تأثیر را در کاهش غلظت قابل جذب کادمیوم داشت به طوری که با افزایش مصرف منوآمونیومفسفات، غلظت قابل جذب کادمیوم نیز کاهش یافت. کمترین غلظت قابل جذب کادمیوم از مصرف 15 تن در هکتار منوآمونیومفسفات بدست آمد. بعد از منوآمونیوم فسفات، زئولیت به مقدار 5 تن در هکتار بیشترین تأثیر را در کاهش غلظت قابل جذب کادمیوم داشت و تأثیر آهک و ورمیکمپوست بر کاهش غلظت قابل جذب کادمیوم یکسان بود. احتمالاً تشکیل فسفات کادمیوم (Cd3(PO4  دلیل کاهشغلظت قابل جذب کادمیوم در نمونههای تیمار شده با فسفات باشد.
تأثیر اصلاح کنندههای مختلف و سطوح آنها بر غلظت قابل جذب روی خاك
   اصلاح کننده های مختلف تأثیر معنی داری بر غلظت قابل جذب روی در خاك دارند. بعضی اصلاح کننده ها سبب افزایش غلظت قابل جذب و برخی دیگر سبب کاهش غلظت قابل جذب روی شده اند. آهک با مقدار 1 درصد بیشترین تأثیر را در کاهش غلظت قابل جذب روی داشت. اگرچه بین سطوح 2 و 4 درصد آهک تفاوت معنی داری وجود نداشت. ورمیکمپوست و زئولیت سبب افزایش جزئی مقدار روی قابل جذب در خاك شدند که این افزایش نسبت به شاهد معنی دار نبود. منوآمونیوم فسفات سبب افزایش غلظت قابل جذب روی در خاك گردید و این افزایش از نظر آماری معنی دار بود. به طوری که بیشترین غلظت قابل جذب روی خاك از مصرف 5 تن در هکتارمنوآمونیوم فسفات بدست آمد. آهک بیشترین تأثیر را در کاهش غلظت روی قابل جذب خاك داشت که احتمالاً بدلیل تشکیل رسوب کربنات روی باشد که یکی از مهمترین فرمهای جامد روی در خاك است لیندزی 1979 ) تعادل زیر را برای تشکیل یا انحلال کربنات روی پیشنهاد نموده است.
CO3Ca+Zn2+ <=>Ca2++CO3Zn
همانطور که ثابت تعادل فوق نشان میدهد امکان تشکیل فاز جامد کربنات روی در خاکهای آهکی فراهم است تشکیل فاز جامد کربنات روی منجر به کاهش غلظت روی در فاز محلول و غیر قابل استفاده شدن روی برای جذب میگردد(4). اضافه کردن منوآمونیوم فسفات به خاك باعث افزایش میزان روی قابل جذب خاك گردید. کاهشpH خاك در اثر فرایند نیترات سازی که از یون آمونیوم همراه در فسفات منشاء میگیرد باعث حل شدن اکسید و کربنات روی موجود در خاك میشود و در نتیجه غلظت روی در محلول خاك افزایش می یابد.
   به طور کلی از این پژوهش نتیجه می شود که بهترین اصلاح کننده جهت غیرمتحرك کردن و در نتیجه کاهش غلظت قابل جذب سرب و کادمیوم در خاك منوآمونیوم فسفات و بهترین اصلاح کننده جهت کاهش غلظت قابل جذب روی در خاك آهک می باشد.
منابع
ملیحه خالقی 1، احمد گلچین 2، سعید شفیعی 3
  کارشناس ارشد خاکشناسی دانشگاه زنجان
 استاد گروه خاکشناسی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان
دکتری خاکشناسی دانشگاه زنجان
١- گلچین، احمد. 1384 . منابع آلایندهی خاكها و محصولات زراعی و باغی استان زنجان به فلزات سنگین. انتشارات سازمان
مدیریت و برنامهریزی استان زنجان. ص . 119
2- Alloway, B. J. 1990. Heavy metals in soils. John Wiley and Sons. Inc. New york.
3- Harter, R. D. R. and Naidu, R. 1995. Role of metal-organic complexation in metal sorption by soils. Adv. Agron. 55:219-264.
4- Lindsay, W. L. 1979. Chemical equilibria in soils. John Wiley and Sons. Inc. N. Y.
5- Mc Gowen, S. L., Basta, N. T. and Browen, G. O. 2001. Use of diammonium phosphate to reduse heavy metal solubility and transport in smelter-contaminnated soil. J. Environmental Quality, 30: 493-450.
6- Santillian-Medrano, J. and Jurinak, J. J. 1975. The chemistry of lead and cadmium in soil: Solid phase formation. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 39: 851-856.

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‘Everyone loves determined women. Someone you will never know what they have to want. A person that won't say yes because I said yes. Someone who's not afraid when you try new things,' he says. ‘I'm never afraid of attempting a new challenge, especially on the subject of making new stuff in the sack ', I intimate ‘And I adore females who are direct, who cut in the chase, like you simply did. To be
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دوشنبه 10 تیر 1398 01:59 ق.ظ
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جمعه 7 تیر 1398 09:16 ب.ظ
We're having coffee at Nylon Coffee Roasters on Everton Park in Singapore.

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‘Oh, I do not know. Everything happens for reasons right.
But figure out, you would not reject me, would you Ana?' He said.


‘No, how could I?' , I replied

"So, utilize mind if I kissed you today?' he stated as I recieve better him and kiss him.

‘The next occasion don't ask, function it.' I reply.

‘I love the way you think.' , he said.

For the time being, I start scrubbing my heel bone as part of his leg, massaging it slowly. ‘What do that suits you in females? And, Andrew, don't spare me the details.' I ask.

‘I adore determined women. Someone that knows whatever they want. A person who won't say yes although I said yes. Someone who's not afraid of trying something totally new,' he says. ‘I'm never afraid when you try new stuff, especially when it comes to making new things in the sack ', I intimate ‘And I really like women who are direct, who cut throughout the chase, like you simply did. To get
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پنجشنبه 6 تیر 1398 05:45 ب.ظ
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جمعه 31 خرداد 1398 09:00 ب.ظ
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We both gasped while he held his cock there for just a moment.

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I rolled aside and rested my leg against his shoulder, anf the husband plunged his
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جمعه 17 خرداد 1398 01:46 ق.ظ
We're having coffee at Nylon Coffee Roasters on Everton Park in Singapore.

I'm having black coffee, he's possessing a cappuccino. He is handsome.
Brown hair slicked back, glasses which fit his face, hazel eyes and the most wonderful lips I've seen. He could be well made, with incredible arms along with a chest that sticks
out during this sweater. We're standing right in front of each other discussing our way of life,
what we want in the future, what we're searching for on another
person. He starts telling me that they have been rejected a great deal of times.



‘Why Andrew? You're so handsome. I'd never reject you
', I only say He smiles at me, biting his lip.


‘Oh, I would not know. Everything happens for a good reason right.
But figure out, make use of reject me, do you Ana?' He said.


‘No, how could I?' , I replied

"So, you would not mind if I kissed you at the moment?' he was quoted saying as I recieve far better him and kiss him.

‘The next occasion don't ask, function it.' I reply.

‘I enjoy the method that you think.' , he said.

While waiting, I start scrubbing my your back heel in her leg, massaging it slowly. ‘What exactly do you wish ladies? And, Andrew, don't spare me the details.' I ask.

‘I like determined women. Someone discussion what they have to want. Someone who won't say yes even if I said yes. Someone who's not scared of attempting a new challenge,' he says. ‘I'm never afraid of trying a new challenge, especially in terms of making something totally new in the bed room ', I intimate ‘And I adore ladies who are direct, who cut with the chase, like you just did. To get
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پنجشنبه 9 خرداد 1398 10:53 ق.ظ
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پنجشنبه 2 خرداد 1398 01:49 ق.ظ
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چهارشنبه 25 اردیبهشت 1398 06:25 ب.ظ
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چهارشنبه 25 اردیبهشت 1398 03:47 ق.ظ
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