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علوم خاک soil-science - ظرفیت تبادل کاتیون خاک (cations exchange capcity
علوم خاک soil-science
پیش به سوی کشاورزی پایدار با نگرش صحیح به خاک

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ظرفیت تبادل کاتیون خاک (cations exchange capcity

ظرفیت تبادل کاتیون خاک (cations exchange capcity)

ظرفیت تبادل کاتیون خاک (C.E.C) عبارت از حداکثر مقدار کاتیونی است که وزن معینی از خاک قادر است در خود جذب یا نگهداری نماید. این ظرفیت را بر حسب میلی اکی والان در یک صد گرم خاک خشک نشان می دهند. با توجه به آنچه که در جانشینی کاتیون ها به جای یون H+ در کلوئیدهای رس و هوموس گفته شد، اگر این ظرفیت برای خاک معینی T میلی اکی والان باشد و در موقعیت معینی S میلی اکی والان کاتیون در جذب 100 گرم خاک خشک قرار داشته باشد، تفاضل S,T یعنی (T - S) مصرف مقدار هیدروژن موجود در جذب کلوئیدهای همان وزن خاک خواهد بود.
بدین ترتیب ظرفیت تبادل کاتیون یک خاک نماینده مجموعه کاتیون ها و هیدروژن قابل تبادل در جذب یکصد گرم از خاک است +T=S+H . ظرفیت تبادل کاتیون یک خاک اهمیت فوق العاده ای در خواص فیزیکی شیمیایی آن دارد و از آن به عنوان یک مشخصه تعیین نوع خاک استفاده می شود. به طور کلی می توان گفت که هر قدر خاکی از کلوئیدهای معدنی و آلی غنی باشد، این ظرفیت در آن بیشتر است و هر چه خاک در معرض شستشوی کمتری قرار داشته و نیز PH آن خنثی یا به طرف قلیایی میل کند، مقدار S به ظرفیت مزبور نزدیک است، به طوری که در خاک های آهکی (اشباع از کلسیم) و خاک های قلیایی (اشباع از سدیم)، S تقریباً معادل T می باشد. در تعیین مقدار کاتیون قابل تبادل موجود در یک خاک (S)، از خاصیت جانشینی یونها استفاده می شود، بدین ترتیب که کلیه کاتیونهای جذب شده در وزن معینی از خاک را با جانشین کردن کاتیونی دیگر مانند+ NH4 استخراج می نماید ( معمولاً برای این کار از محلول استات آمونیوم استفاده می شود)
در محلول استخراج شده هر یک از کاتیون های Na+2 , k2+,mg+2,ca+2 و غیره را اندازه گیری و از جمع آنها s را تعیین می نمایند. (در این روش به ناچار مقدار جزئی+ NH4 موجود در جذب نمونه اولیه خاک به حساب نمی آید.
 

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