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علوم خاک soil-science - وزن مخصوص حقیقی خاک Actual density of soil
علوم خاک soil-science
پیش به سوی کشاورزی پایدار با نگرش صحیح به خاک

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وزن مخصوص حقیقی خاک Actual density of soil

وزن مخصوص حقیقی خاک 

عبارت است از وزن ذرات خاک در واحد حجم آن و واحد آن گرم بر سانتی متر مکعب است.
بر خلاف وزن مخصوص ظاهری فضای بین ذرات ارتباطی با وزن مخصوص حقیقی خاک ندارد. وزن مخصوص حقیقی خاک ها بین 60/2 تا 75/2 گرم بر سانتی متر مکعب نوسان دارد که به طور متوسط 65/2 گرم بر سانتی متر مکعب است. این وزن تقریباً ثابت است چون اغلب کانی های موجود در خاک دارای وزن مخصوص در همین محدوده می باشند. فقط در صورت وجود بعضی از کانیها مثل تورمالین، ماگنتیت و یا هورن بلند ممکن است وزن مخصوص حقیقی این خاکها به بیش از 75/2 هم برسد علاوه بر این چون مواد آلی سبک تر از مواد معدنی خاک است. بنابراین خاک های که محتوی مقدار نسبتاً زیادی مواد آلی است دارای وزن مخصوص حقیقی کمتر است و روی همین اصل وزن مخصوص حقیقی خاک های سطح الارض همیشه کمتر از خاک های تحت الارض است.
وزن مخصوص برابر است با وزن مطلق خاک تقسیم بر حجم حقیقی خاک

D' = ( P' ⁄ V' )

 

'D = وزن مخصوص ظاهری بر حسب گرم بر سانتی متر مکعب
'V = حجم خاک خشک شده در 105 درجه سانتی گراد در حالت طبیعی بر حسب سانتی متر مکعب
'P= وزن خاک خشک در 105 درجه سانتی گراد در حالت طبیعی بر حسب گرم

باتوجه به وزن مخصوص حقیقی و وزن مخصوص ظاهری و با استفاده از فرمول ذیل می توان مقدار درصد خلل و فرج خاک را اندازه بگیرید.

 

 

وزن مخصوص ظاهری

 

درصد خلل وفرج خاک

=   100

×


 - 100

 

 

وزن مخصوص حقیقی

 

 

خاک بایستی خلل و فرج مناسبی برای آب و هوا داشته باشد اگر رسی باشد میکروپورها زیاد و آب زیاد و هوا کم است و اگرشنی باشد ماکرپورها زیاد و هوا زیاد و آب کم می باشد. اندازه گیری خلل و فرج نشان می دهد که آیا وضع آب و هوای خاک خوب است یا نه ؟
درصد حجم خاک که بوسیله مواد جامد اشغال شده برابر است با حاصل تقسیم وزن مخصوص ظاهری بر وزن مخصوص حقیقی ضرب در 100
 

یک خاک خوب باید حجم مواد جامدش حدود 45 درصد باشد. اگر شرایط تشکیل خاکدانه وجود نداشته باشد حجم کل منافذ خاک به 10% حجم نمی رسد. زیرا حجم منافذ ماکرو و میکرو به طرز قرار گرفتن ذرات خاک یعنی خاکدانه ها بستگی دارد و همچنین خاکدانه ها منافذی ایجاد می کنند که لوله های کاپیلاری یا شرائین یا موئین نامیده می شود.  

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