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علوم خاک soil-science - نفوذ پذیری (Permeability)
علوم خاک soil-science
پیش به سوی کشاورزی پایدار با نگرش صحیح به خاک

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نفوذ پذیری (Permeability)

نفوذ پذیری (Permeability)

قابلیت کم و بیش متفاوتی که خاک های مختلف برای هدایت آب از خود نشان می دهند تحت نام نفوذ پذیری یکی از مشخصات مهم فیزیکی خاک به حساب می آید. در مبحث حرکت آب اشباع در خاک منظور از نفوذ پذیری همان سهولت نسبی عبور آب از خاک است و همان طوری که برای سهولت عبور الکتریسته لغت هدایت الکتریکی به کار می رود در خصوص حرکت آب اشباع در خاک نیز اصطلاح هدایت آبی (Hydraulic conductivity) جایز گردید.
تأثیر خلل و فرج را در نفوذ پذیری خاک باید در نسبت ریزی و درشتی آنها جستجو نمود، اگر مجموع خلل و فرج خاکی زیاد ولی قسمت اعظم آن از نوع ریز باشد توده خاک به وجود دارا بودن ظرفیت نگهداری آب قابل ملاحظه نفوذپذیری ناچیزی خواهد داشت. در واقع مقدار خلل و فرج درشت در واحد حجم خاک، تعیین کننده نقطه پژمردگی از گیاهی به گیاه دیگر کمی متفاوت می کند.
 

مراحل مختلف رشد

زمان حالت پژمردگی تنزل بازدهی
پس از جوانه زدن 2 درصد
شروع رشد ساقه های فرعی 5 درصد
شروع خوشه بستن 55 درصد
رسیدگی 0 درصد
 

با آنچه در خصوص حدود مشخصه آب در خاک گفته شد به آسانی می توان دریافت که رطوبت قابل استفاده گیاهان در هر نوبت آبیاری عبارت است از تفاضل دو رطوبت نگهداری آب در خاک و نقطه پژمردگی و مقدار آن معمولاً نصف ظرفیت نگهداری آب در خاک است.  

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